lettuce1

ANYONE UP FOR A SALAD?

LETTUCE
Salad anyone?

Anyone up for a salad? When everything is peculating correctly, the veggies will flow like the nutrient-rich water that feeds them.  There is nothing like the taste of fresh veggies that you have grown yourself and they are just as close as your Aquaponics system wherever it is, the basement, greenhouse or garage.  Let’s eat.

Lettuce_Salad
There is no salad without Lettuce

Before we get into the meat (facts) of the matter of lettuce. I have included a video here and although it is about hydroponic production of lettuce, the same basic principles apply and it just shows what is possible if you desire a commercial operation.

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches, and wraps; it can also be grilled. One variety, the woju (莴苣), or asparagus lettuce (celtuce), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption.

Europe and North America originally dominated the market for lettuce, but by the late 20th century the consumption of lettuce had spread throughout the world. World production of lettuce and chicory for the calendar year 2015 was 26.1 million tonnes, 56% of which came from China.

Lettuce was first cultivated by the ancient Egyptians who turned it from a weed whose seeds were used to produce oil, into a food plant grown for its succulent leaves and oil-rich seeds. Lettuce spread to the Greeks and Romans, the latter of whom gave it the name Lactuca, from which the English lettuce is ultimately derived.

By 50 AD, many types were described, and lettuce appeared often in medieval writings, including several herbals. The 16th through 18th centuries saw the development of many varieties in Europe, and by the mid-18th-century cultivars were described that can still be found in gardens to this day.

Generally grown as a hardy annual, lettuce is easily cultivated, although it requires relatively low temperatures to prevent it from flowering quickly. It can be plagued by numerous nutrient deficiencies, as well as insect and animal pests, and fungal and bacterial diseases. L. sativa crosses easily within the species and with some other species within the genus Lactuca. Although this trait can be a problem to home gardeners who attempt to save seeds, biologists have used it to broaden the gene pool of cultivated lettuce varieties.

Lettuce is a rich source of vitamin K and vitamin A and a moderate source of folate and iron. Contaminated lettuce is often a source of bacterial, viral, and parasitic outbreaks in humans, including E. coli and Salmonella.

Description

Lettuce’s native range spreads from the Mediterranean to Siberia, although it has been transported to almost all areas of the world. Plants generally have a height and spread of 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in). The leaves are colorful, mainly in the green and red color spectrums, with some variegated varieties. There are also a few varieties with yellow, gold or blue-teal leaves.

Lettuces have a wide range of shapes and textures, from the dense heads of the iceberg type to the notched, scalloped, frilly or ruffly leaves of leaf varieties. Lettuce plants have a root system that includes a main taproot and smaller secondary roots. Some varieties, especially those found in the United States and Western Europe, have long, narrow taproots and a small set of secondary roots. Longer taproots and more extensive secondary systems are found in varieties from Asia.

Depending on the variety and time of year, lettuce generally lives 65–130 days from planting to harvesting. Because lettuce that flowers (through the process known as “bolting”) become bitter and unsaleable, plants grown for consumption are rarely allowed to grow to maturity. Lettuce flowers more quickly in hot temperatures, while freezing temperatures cause slower growth and sometimes damage to outer leaves.

Once plants move past the edible stage, they develop flower stalks up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high with small yellow blossoms. Like other members of the tribe Cichorieae, lettuce inflorescences (also known as flower heads or capitula) are composed of multiple florets, each with a modified calyx called a pappus (which becomes the feathery “parachute” of the fruit), a corolla of five petals fused into a ligule or strap, and the reproductive parts.

These include fused anthers that form a tube which surrounds a style and bipartite stigma. As the anthers shed pollen, the style elongates to allow the stigmas, now coated with pollen, to emerge from the tube. The ovaries form compressed, obovate (teardrop-shaped) dry fruits that do not open at maturity, measuring 3 to 4 mm long. The fruits have 5–7 ribs on each side and are tipped by two rows of small white hairs. The pappus remains at the top of each fruit as a dispersal structure. Each fruit contains one seed, which can be white, yellow, gray or brown depending on the variety of lettuce.

The domestication of lettuce over the centuries has resulted in several changes through selective breeding: delayed bolting, larger seeds, larger leaves and heads, better taste and texture, a lower latex content, and different leaf shapes and colors. Work in these areas continues through the present day.

Scientific research into the genetic modification of lettuce is ongoing, with over 85 field trials taking place between 1992 and 2005 in the European Union and the United States to test modifications allowing greater herbicide tolerance, greater resistance to insects and fungi and slower bolting patterns. However, genetically modified lettuce is not currently used in commercial agriculture.

Cultivation

A hardy annual, some varieties of lettuce can be overwintered even in relatively cold climates under a layer of straw, and older, heirloom varieties are often grown in cold frames. Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows. Heading varieties of lettuces are commonly started in flats, then transplanted to individual spots, usually 20 to 36 cm (7.9 to 14.2 in) apart, in the garden after developing several leaves. Lettuce spaced further apart receives more sunlight, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the leaves. Pale to white lettuce, such as the centers in some iceberg lettuce, contain few nutrients.

Lettuce grows best in full sun in loose, nitrogen-rich soils with a pH of between 6.0 and 6.8. Heat generally prompts lettuce to bolt, with most varieties growing poorly above 24 °C (75 °F); cool temperatures prompt better performance, with 16 to 18 °C (61 to 64 °F) being preferred and as low as 7 °C (45 °F) being tolerated. Plants in hot areas that are provided partial shade during the hottest part of the day will bolt more slowly.

Temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) will generally result in poor or non-existent germination of lettuce seeds. After harvest, lettuce lasts the longest when kept at 0 °C (32 °F) and 96 percent humidity. Lettuce quickly degrades when stored with fruit such as apples, pears, and bananas that release the ripening agent ethylene gas. The high water content of lettuce (94.9 percent) creates problems when attempting to preserve the plant – it cannot be successfully frozen, canned or dried and must be eaten fresh.

Lettuce varieties will cross with each other, making the spacing of 1.5 to 6 m (60 to 240 in) between varieties necessary to prevent contamination when saving seeds. Lettuce will also cross with Lactuca serriola (wild lettuce), with the resulting seeds often producing a plant with tough, bitter leaves. Celtuce, a lettuce variety grown primarily in Asia for its stems, crosses easily with lettuces grown for their leaves.

This propensity for crossing, however, has led to breeding programs using closely related species in Lactuca, such as L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa, to broaden the available gene pool. Starting in the 1990s, such programs began to include more distantly related species such as L. tatarica. Seeds keep best when stored in cool conditions, and, unless stored cryogenically, remain viable the longest when stored at −20 °C (−4 °F); they are relatively short-lived in storage. At room temperature, lettuce seeds remain viable for only a few months. However, when newly harvested lettuce seed is stored cryogenically, this life increases to a half-life of 500 years for vaporized nitrogen and 3,400 years for liquid nitrogen; this advantage is lost if seeds are not frozen promptly after harvesting.

Cultivars

There are several types of lettuce, but three (leaf, head, and cos or romaine) are the most common. There are seven main cultivar groups of lettuce, each including many varieties:

  • leafLeaf – Also known as looseleaf, cutting or bunching lettuce, this type has loosely bunched leaves and is the most widely planted. It is used mainly for salads.
  • romaineRomaine/Cos – Used mainly for salads and sandwiches, this type forms long, upright heads This is the most often used lettuce in Caesar salads.
  • icebergIceberg/Crisphead – The most popular type in the United States, it is very heat-sensitive and was originally adapted for growth in the northern United States. It ships well, but is low in flavor and nutritional content, being composed of even more water than other lettuce types.
  • butterheadButterhead – Also known as Boston or Bibb lettuce, and traditional in the UK as “round lettuce”, this type is head lettuce with a loose arrangement of leaves, known for its sweet flavor and tender texture.
  • summercrispThe lettuce variety celtuce is grown for its stem, used in Chinese cooking
    Summercrisp – Also called Batavian or French crisp, this lettuce is midway between the crisphead and leaf types. These lettuces tend to be larger, bolt-resistant and well-flavored.
  • celtuceCeltuce/Stem – This type is grown for its seed stalk, rather than its leaves, and is used in Asian cooking, primarily Chinese, as well as stewed and creamed dishes.
  • Oilseed – This type is grown for its seeds, which are pressed to extract an oil mainly used for cooking. It has few leaves, bolts quickly and produces seeds around 50 percent larger than other types of lettuce.
  • The butterhead and crisphead types are sometimes known together as “cabbage” lettuce because their heads are shorter, flatter, and more cabbage-like than romaine lettuces.

Cultivation problems

Soil nutrient deficiencies can cause a variety of plant problems that range from malformed plants to a lack of head growth. Many insects are attracted to lettuce, including cutworms, which cut seedlings off at the soil line; wireworms and nematodes, which cause yellow, stunted plants; tarnished plant bugs and aphids, which cause yellow, distorted leaves; leafhoppers, which cause stunted growth and pale leaves; thrips, which turn leaves gray-green or silver; leafminers, which create tunnels within the leaves; flea beetles, which cut small holes in leaves and caterpillars, slugs and snails, which cut large holes in leaves.

For example, the larva of the ghost moth is a common pest of lettuce plants. Animals, including rabbits and groundhogs, also eat the plants. Lettuce contains several defensive compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, and other natural phenolics such as flavonol and glycosides, which help to protect it against pests.

Certain varieties contain more than others, and some selective breeding and genetic modification studies have focused on using this trait to identify and produce commercial varieties with increased pest resistance.

Lettuce also suffers from several viral diseases, including big vein, which causes yellow, distorted leaves, and mosaic virus, which is spread by aphids and causes stunted plant growth and deformed leaves. Aster yellows are disease-causing bacteria carried by leafhoppers, which causes deformed leaves.

Fungal diseases include powdery mildew and downy mildew, which cause leaves to mold and die and bottom rot, lettuce drop and gray mold, which cause entire plants to rot and collapse. Crowding lettuce tends to attract pests and diseases. Weeds can also be an issue, as cultivated lettuce is generally not competitive with them, especially when directly seeded into the ground.

Transplanted lettuce (started in flats and later moved to grow beds) is generally more competitive initially, but can still be crowded later in the season, causing misshapen lettuce and lower yields. Weeds also act as homes for insects and disease and can make harvesting more difficult. Herbicides are often used to control weeds in commercial production. However, this has led to the development of herbicide-resistant weeds and prompted environmental and health concerns.

OK folks, a pretty good amount of info about lettuce has been laid out before you to help you start raising your own lettuce in your own Aquaponics System.  Let me know how it turns out.

Graphics courtesy of Google images & Article content partially courtesy of Wikipedia

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